Colorectal cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types both worldwide and in our country. Various scientific research have shown that mediterranean diet which is rich in vegetable, fruit, fish, olive oil and dried nuts such as walnut and hazelnut reduces the risk of death from cancer and embolism. Professor Hakan Yanar, general surgeon at Liv Hospital explained colorectal cancer prevention, screening and treatment methods and underlined the importance of dietary habits.
What are the causes of colorectal cancer? Who is at risk?
More than 90% of colorectal cancer incidents are caused by previously developed polyps. Polyps are rare in people less than 50 years of age but the risk of developing polyps increases after the age of 50, so does the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Dietary habits rich in fat but poor in fiber, a family history of colorectal cancer in a first-degree relative as well as inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
Is colorectal cancer dangerous?
Early diagnosis is very important in colorectal cancer which is a slowly progressing and symptomless type of cancer. When found early, CRC, diagnosed especially in people aged 50 or higher, is highly treatable. CRC is the second or third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide.
What are the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer?
How to make an early diagnosis?
Guaiac-based fecal occult blood test and Fecal immunochemical test can be used to find colorectal cancer but colonoscopy is the most efficient method. Polyps that can become cancerous should be removed during colonoscopy. Therefore, people without a family history of colorectal cancer should have their first colonoscopy at the age of 50. If colorectal cancer is not found, they should still have colonoscopy once every 10 years. People with a family history of colorectal cancer should have their first colonoscopy ten years before the age of colorectal cancer was first seen in their family.
How is colorectal cancer treated?
Standard treatment method is surgery. However, removal of some intact colon tissue and surrounding lymph nodes along with the tumor during the operation is of vital importance. Surgical operation that is very important for long-term survival after cancer, recurrence and metastasis of tumor should be performed by experienced surgeons. These surgical operations are performed successfully through a small incision in the abdomen using laporoscopy and robotic surgery methods. The advantages of laparoscopic and robotic surgeries include less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and formation of a significantly smaller scar after surgery. Tumours near the rectum can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy and in this way removal of the bowel can be avoided.
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