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3 Dimensional Brachytherapy: Target Focused Efficient Irradiation in Cancer Treatment - Brachytherapy

3 Dimensional Brachytherapy: Target Focused Efficient Irradiation in Cancer Treatment - Brachytherapy

3 Dimensional Brachytherapy: Target Focused Efficient Irradiation in Cancer Treatment - Brachytherapy 
This treatment is administered by bringing radioactive sources/radiation source nearby the tumor. It is frequently used successfully in the treatment of gynecological cancer types (uterus, cervical and vagina cancers), lung cancer and skin cancer. Nowadays brachytherapy can be applied in 3 dimensions with the use of imaging methods based on section anatomy such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance. While dissemination of 3 dimensional brachytherapy increases success levels, it reduces side effects. 
 
Brachytherapy is applied with three methods described below:
1- Intracavitary brachytherapy: (Cavity brachytherapy) It is applied by placing applicators inside the natural cavities of the patient (uterus, cervical, bronchus etc.).
2- Interstitial brachytherapy: (In-tissue brachytherapy) It may applied by using applicators placed inside the patient’s tissues or with the help of radioactive sources administered through needles and it can be also made by permanently impregnating radioactive sources inside the tissue (permanent prostate uLDR brachytherapy). 
3- Contact brachytherapy: Radioactive source/radiation source is applied to external tissues such as kin or is applied at the time of removal of other organs during operation like in superficial intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT).
 
3 dimensional brachytherapy in gynecological tumors 
In the treatment of gynecological tumors made by physicians from variable disciplines, brachytherapy has an important function and is applied by bringing radioactive sources nearby the area to be irradiated. Most frequent use of brachytherapy in the world is seen in gynecological cancers. Brachytherapy is used after the operation in case of uterus cancers (endometrium), cervical cancers and vagina cancers or in case of patients not fit for the operation, it is applied as single therapy method along with external irradiation. 
Especially in the revent years, brachytherapy applications developed from 2 dimensional methods toward 3 dimensional methods. Based on data obtained from computerized tomography and MR devices, 3 dimensional brachytheraphy applications make great contribution to the successful treatment of gynecological cancers and it allows proper protection of the surrounding tissues (bladder, rectum, sigmoid etc.). This gives the chance to finish the treatment with less side effects. 
Skin brachytherapy (by Leipzig applicator)
Brachytheraphy is successfully applied in the treatment of early phase of skin squamous and basal celled cancers with a proper depth and surface. Cosmetic damages arising from operation in the treatment of those tumors developing especially around the face are seen less usually if brachytherapy is applied instead of operational methods. Patients suffering from early phase of on-the-face developed skin cancer may be treated by brachytheraphy if it is also approved by the plastic surgeon. 

3 dimensional brachytheraphy in lung (bronchus) cancers
In case of patients on whom external irradiation methods can not be applied in the radiotherapy of lung cancer, brachytheraphy can be performed through tubes to be placed inside the main airways with the assistance of chest diseases team. 
 
Applicator types
In order to bring the radioactive source nearby the patient’s area to be irradiated, certain assistant instruments such as applicators may be used. Although these applicators are mostly placed without any pain, sometimes t may be necessary to perform anesthesia.

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